Artificial intelligence or deep learning technologies have gained prevalence in solving medical imaging tasks. In this talk, we first review the traits that characterize medical images, such as multi-modalities, heterogeneous and isolated data, sparse and noisy labels, imbalanced samples. We then point out the necessity of a paradigm shift from "small task, big data
" to "big task, small data
". Finally, we illustrate the trends of AI technologies in medical imaging and present a multitude of algorithms that attempt to address various aspects of “big task, small data”:
- Annotation-efficient methods that tackle medical image analysis without many labelled instances, including one-shot or label-free inference approaches.
- Universal models that learn “common + specific” feature representations for multi-domain tasks to unleash the potential of ‘bigger data’, which are formed by integrating multiple datasets associated with tasks of interest into one use.
- "Deep learning + knowledge modeling" approaches, which combine machine learning with domain knowledge to enable start-of-the-art performances for many tasks of medical image reconstruction, recognition, segmentation, and parsing.